Best Practices for Testing Android Applications with Espresso and JUnit

Blair Fernandes
2 min readAug 20, 2023
Photo by Jeremy Ricketts on Unsplash

Testing Android applications is an essential skill for any developer who wants to ensure the quality and reliability of their code. One of the most popular tools for testing Android apps is Espresso, a framework that provides a fluent API for writing UI tests. Espresso works well with JUnit, the standard testing library for Java and Android.

In this post, I will share some of the best practices for testing Android applications with Espresso and JUnit. These practices will help you write clear, concise, and maintainable tests that cover the most important aspects of your app’s functionality.

1. Use the @Rule annotation to set up and tear down your test environment. The @Rule annotation allows you to specify a test rule that will be applied before and after each test method. For example, you can use the ActivityScenarioRule to launch and finish your activity under test automatically.

2. Use the onView() method to find and interact with UI elements. The onView() method takes a ViewMatcher as an argument and returns a ViewInteraction object that allows you to perform actions and assertions on the matched view. For example, you can use the withId() matcher to find a view by its ID and then call the click() action to simulate a user click.

3. Use the Espresso idling resources to synchronize your tests with asynchronous operations. Espresso idling resources are objects that tell Espresso when your app is idle or busy. By registering an idling resource, you can ensure that Espresso will wait until your app is idle before performing any actions or assertions. For example, you can use the CountingIdlingResource to track the number of active network requests and notify Espresso when they are all completed.

4. Use the @Before and @After annotations to perform common setup and cleanup tasks. The @Before and @After annotations allow you to define methods that will be executed before and after each test method. For example, you can use the @Before annotation to initialize some mock objects and inject them into your app using Dagger or Hilt.

5. Use descriptive and consistent names for your test methods. The names of your test methods should clearly indicate what they are testing and what the expected outcome is. A good practice is to use the given-when-then format, where you specify the initial state, the action, and the result. For example, you can name your test method as follows:

@Test
fun givenEmptyEmail_whenLoginButtonClicked_thenShowEmailError() {
// Arrange
// Act
// Assert
}

Learn more about testing Android apps from this official guide.

I hope you found this blog post useful and learned something new. If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to leave a comment below. Happy testing!

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Blair Fernandes

I am a passionate programmer 💻, geek 🤓 & an avid gamer🎮